Lumps and bumps
Finding a lump on your pet can be a worrying experience. Although most lumps are harmless it is impossible to tell what a lump is simply by looking at it. If your pet has a swelling that lasts for more than a few days always ask your veterinarian to check it for you.
Are all lumps cancer?
There are many different things that can cause swellings: bruising or fluid build-up, abscesses, ticks (small parasites which latch onto your pet's skin and suck blood, swelling as they do so), and, of course, cancers. If you find any unusual lump or swelling on your pet you should make an appointment for your veterinarian to check it out. Although most lumps are harmless, some can be very dangerous if left untreated. The biggest concern for most people is whether their pet has cancer.
Cancers are divided into two groups:
- Benign - these lumps may grow bigger but do not spread elsewhere.
- Malignant - more aggressive lumps which not only grow but also spread through the body and may affect organs such as lungs and liver.
Some benign growths can also cause problems if they continue to grow. Even fatty lumps can grow to a huge size and may cause problems due to their physical size, eg restricting leg movement or pressing on the airways and causing breathing problems. Malignant growths are obviously more worrying - they must be removed before they have spread elsewhere.
How can I tell if a lump is cancer?
Even your veterinarian probably won't be able to tell whether the lump is cancer or some other kind of swelling just by looking at it. There are some things to look for which may help your veterinarian decide whether a lump on your pet is likely to be benign or malignant:
- If the lump can be picked up in the fingers and moved around it is less likely to be aggressive. Malignant lumps often grow into the tissues beneath the skin and this makes them more difficult to remove.
- If the lump grows very quickly it can soon cause problems even if it does not spread. Removing a large lump is much more difficult and leaves a bigger wound so fast-growing lumps should be removed while they are still small.
- Malignant lumps often cause a reaction in the tissue around them - if any lump is red, painful when touched or is ulcerated or discharging then it should probably be removed.
- Some cancers produce substances that make animals unwell - if your pet has a lump and shows signs of illness eg sickness, depression or excessive drinking then mention this to your veterinarian when he examines your pet.
My pet has had a lump for years - should I worry?
If a lump has been present for a long time without causing any problems it is unlikely to suddenly turn nasty. However, all lumps should be monitored closely. Feel the lump once a month (if you feel it too often you will not notice if it is growing slowly), and keep a note of its size. Ask your veterinarian to measure the lump each year at the time of vaccination and record if it is growing. If the lump changes in any way, ie starts to grow more quickly, is sore or discharging, make an appointment for your veterinarian to check the lump again.
What will my veterinarian do if I find a lump on my pet?
If you find a lump on your pet your veterinarian will want to examine the lump to see if they think it is likely to cause a problem. They will also examine your pet to see if she is otherwise healthy or if there are any other growths elsewhere. Unfortunately it will not be possible to say for certain that a growth will never cause problems just by looking at it. If your veterinarian is concerned they will take some samples from the lump to try to find out what sort it is. Sampling a lump can be as easy as putting a needle into it to collect a few cells or it may be necessary to take a piece of the lump under anesthetic. These samples can be sent to a pathologist at a laboratory who will be able to tell your veterinarian what sort of lump it is. Once your veterinarian knows this they will be able to advise you on the best treatment for your pet.
Why does my veterinarian need to do other tests?
In most cases, the only treatment needed for small growths is to remove them. However, if it is a type of cancer that could spread elsewhere your veterinarian may want to make sure that there is no sign of spread and to do this they may need to take X-rays or perform an ultrasound examination. If your pet is old or unwell your veterinarian may want to take a blood sample to check your pet is healthy enough to have an anesthetic.
Why does my cat need a general anesthetic to remove the lump?
In human medicine skin lumps are often removed by a doctor using local anesthetic. It is unusual for this to be done in veterinary medicine. It is very important that the whole of a cancer is removed to make sure that it does not regrow. Even if the lump appears very small it may be necessary to cut quite deeply to remove all of it. It is important that your pet lies still during the procedure - if they jump or move the operation will be more difficult and dangerous. It is necessary to give patients a sedative to make sure they stay still and sedation is no safer than a well-monitored anesthetic. Sedated patients may take many hours to recover whereas the effects of a short anesthetic should wear off quickly in most animals. If you are worried about treatment of your pet mention your concerns to your veterinarian who will be happy to discuss all the options with you.
What lumps are common?
Most lumps on cats are abscesses (usually due to fighting). Often the abscess will need to be opened and drained and antibiotics may be needed. If you want any more detail on abscesses read the owner factsheet on this subject.
- Fatty lumps
Probably the most common lump found on dogs is a fatty lump (lipoma) but these are much less common in cats. These are benign cancers that rarely spread and are often quite slow growing. However, they can become very large over the years and may need to be removed because they cause physical problems.
- Basal cell tumors
These are a type of skin cancer that can occur in cats. They often look like firm round masses about half a cm across. The good news is that most of these are harmless and removal results in cure.
- Mast cell tumors (cancer)
These are one of the most common types of lumps found in the skin. Mast cells tumors are a type of cancer that can take on many different appearances and can easily be confused with all sorts of other lumps. Some mast cell tumors are harmless and cause no problems, others are very nasty cancers. It is difficult to tell how a mast cell tumor will behave, and so, removal of the tumor plus histopathological grading and checking for spread to other parts of the body is recommended.
- Injection site swellings
Swelling and discomfort at the site of a recent injection or vaccination is most likely to be due to a reaction in the skin. If swelling develops a long time after injection or continues to grow you must ask your veterinarian for advice. Some cats have been known to develop cancer at the site of some types of vaccination.
Warts look like small tags of skin. They are more common in older animals. Often animals that have a wart will go on to develop many others. Sometimes warts bleed and may be irritating in which case they will need to be removed.
- Mammary tumors (breast cancer)
Lumps in the mammary glands of cats are not particularly common and may be relatively harmless but some of the most aggressive types of cancer can also be found here. Mammary lumps in male animals are often very nasty. Surgical removal of all mammary lumps is advisable and in some cases removal of all mammary tissue (mastectomy) is also necessary. Before removing mammary lumps your veterinarian will want to check your pet thoroughly to make sure that the cancer has not spread anywhere else.
The most important thing to remember is that most lumps, even cancers, can be cured if they are caught early enough - so always check with your veterinarian if you find anything unusual on your pet. In most cases your veterinarian will be able to reassure you.